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Charming of the Plow

Seven Trees:

The days are getting longer, and everything is poised to burst into spring fever. Our ancestors marked this time in a variety of farmish ways…

Originally posted on Seven Trees Farm:

Depending on where you’re located, winter is showing its age and spring is on the horizon. This transition has always been marked by local traditions. In modern East Coast America we have Groundhog Day, Christian Europe has Candlemas, Pagan traditions celebrate Imbolc, and descendants of Vikings and Anglo-Saxons welcome the new growing season in yet another way - the charming of the plough (also known as Disting).

A team of transformed oxen driven by the Norse goddess Gefjun.

A team of transformed oxen driven by the Norse goddess Gefjun.

In Sweden at this time, a religious festival was held called the Disablot, to honor the disir – female gods, landspririts, and ancestors. Included in this observance was the governing assembly called the Thing, where laws were made and interpreted, grievances were adjudicated, contracts sealed, and so on. The combined gathering was called Disting, and marked the start of the growing season in that part of the world.

Engraving of a Disablot by J. Malmsrom, a Swedish author. Engraving of a Disablot…

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Bean counting

We finally finished shelling all the beans and peas we grew this year, and ended up with a surprisingly colorful harvest. Beans2In 2011 we planted an early-maturing, light red kidney bean from Fedco Seeds. It performed well, even in unpredictable weather, and our trial planting yielded a fair amount. KidneyBeansBut a few of the beans were different, even though all the seed stock looked identical. We saved these mutants for planting in 2012. SpottedKidneyThe 2012 kidney bean harvest continued to surprise us. Seemingly identical mutant beans got a little kaleidoscopic that summer.

Who knew all those colors lurked in such demure pink beans!

Who knew all those colors lurked in such demure pink beans!

So for 2013, we separated the beans into color categories, a bit subjectively, since we hadn’t thought to keep track of which plants produced which color beans – tan, pink, pink spotted, purple spotted and dark. This time we planted them separately and labelled each patch. And again, we were bemused by the variety of colors hiding in the bean genes. Beans1Our camera is about ready to bite the dust, so the colors are way off. But the top beans are the 2011 seed. The next level are from 2012, the spotted mutants and the normal looking pink beans. We only planted the spotted ones in 2012, so the pink ones could have also produced more mutants. Third level are the five color groups we planted in 2013, and at the bottom are what those groups produced. So for 2014 we have to decide which to plant. Should we plant some of each color? Or only plant beans that are the same color as the parent beans from 2013?

I guess that depends on what we’re trying to achieve with this experiment…. With our chicken-breeding efforts, we’re working for productive, well-conformed chickens that lay a certain color-range of eggs. Kidney beans?? Maybe see if we can get the five color groups from 2013 to breed true by selecting the same colored ‘offspring’ for 2014. And at some point we should do a taste test to see if there is anything interesting (or icky) in the flavor. Luckily we have a few months to ponder that before planting time.

We also managed a decent crop of our exceedingly rare Bishop’s Grey peas, originally brought to us by way of Bosnia. It took a little research to discover that they are actually a Swedish soup pea, eaten as a staple starch before potatoes were introduced. After a couple years growing out the few we had, 2013 yielded a nice amount. The only problem is that all the peas came from only two plants. Not enough genetic diversity for a sustainable crop. PeasEnter NordGen! From their ‘about’ page:

Nordgen works to secure genetic diversity for agriculture and forestry in the Nordic countries.

NordGen promotes in a visible, pro-active and effective way, the Nordic co-operation on sustainable conservation and use of genetic resources for agriculture, forestry and food production.

NordGen promotes a balanced interplay between environmental considerations and sustainable use of genetic resources.

NordGen emphasizes the social, cultural and historical values of genetic diversity within and among different species.

NordGen is one of the leading international services and knowledge centers for management of plant, farm animals and forest genetic resources.

NordGen is an important service and knowledge center in the public arena, providing important consultation and support to decision makers.

NordGen works through its member countries for international openness, co-operation and ethically sound use of global resources.

We were able to find two different accessions of this pea, both from Sweden, and both with a donor history going back to the 1900′s. NordGen provides seeds free of charge to growers intending to ‘breed up’ their own seed stock for sale and sharing, and with one of Seven Trees Farm’s humans being of Swedish descent, we thought it a fine idea to work with heritage vegetables from ‘the old country’. But how to get plant material from there to here? A little help from Fredrik Ottosson, seed curator at NordGen, led me to the USDA’s ‘small lots of seed‘ program. I was able to procure a permit, good for three years, which generated some special import labels that I had to mail to NordGen so they could ship the seeds to an inspection station in Seattle. From there they made it to Seven Trees, and we will see if seeds from Sweden take root as naturally as human transplants did back in the pioneer days. PermitGiven that we had jumped through plenty of hoops for the permit, we did some rummaging through other seed accessions at NordGen. Their search feature is a little hard to navigate, but knowing the home county of the Swedish part of Seven Trees, we were able to locate a dry bean variety, not just from the same location that family members came from, but with a cultivar name right out of the family tree. It could very well be that we will be planting seeds that an ancestor developed as a landrace crop.

Twelve days of Yule

Winter Solstice is an action-packed time of year when it comes to celebrating ancestral-style. Our Northern European forbearers called this time Yule, and it took twelve days and nights to do it right. At Seven Trees Farm, the more we learn about the holidays, customs and traditions of our ancestors, the more we add to our own way of celebrating.

Yule kicks off with Modranicht or Mother Night, the longest night before the shortest day of the year. Our ancestors held this night as sacred to Frigga, who labored to help the new year be born. This is also the night when most farm and household work was supposed to be wrapped up for the year, and everything tidied-up and ready to celebrate. Failing to do so could make the various deities and lesser beings cranky. Wassail

Not only do we wassail our apple trees on solstice night, but we also welcome our Tomte home for the winter with a dish of porridge and milk left out at bedtime (perhaps where the idea of milk & cookies for Santa originated). I’m sure he is around the rest of the year, but with all the planting and harvesting and preserving busy-ness prefers to hide out until things settle down. jultomteWhile everyone was indoors as much as possible, heralding the return of Sunna with many candles and a brightly-burning Yule log, outside the restless dead followed Odin/Wotan across the night skies in the Wild Hunt.

Though it may be met any night of the year (especially those associated with the dead or their festivals), the Hunt is most prevalent on Winter nights, particularly between Yule and Twelfth Night. This goes back to the very old belief that the dead walk among the living during Yule. Ancestors were honored at this season and food was often left out for them, because the relationship between the living and the dead was essential for the well-being of livestock and family. The Wild Hunt may then be associated with ancestral spirits who come to collect their portion of the year’s spoils in return for a good harvest the following year. The Wild Hunt - a darker shade of Yule

Odin and his scary crew aren’t the only ones travelling through the Yuletide nights. The jolly fat man we know today as Santa Claus had early incarnations as a Nisse or Tomte, a household elf who brought gifts to people who had been productive and tidy during the year. He didn’t arrive in a sleigh pulled by reindeer. A goat (julbock) carried the gifts, and sometimes the elf himself. Santaandgoat

These days the Julbock is typically a straw figure of a goat used as an ornament, but it is actually an ancient Yule symbol that goes well back into pagan times. It is theorized that the Yule Goat stems from a connection to Thor, who had a chariot that was pulled through the sky by two goats, Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr.

Another connection with elves at Yule time are the Landvaettir or land-wights. They are beings or spirits that inhabit our surroundings and influence daily life (Iceland even has four Landvaettir on its coat of arms). Our ancestors believed it was very important to be in their good graces, and made small offerings to them, often in the natural places they liked such as large stones, springs or pools, trees. But at Yule time offerings were made in the form of ornaments, ribbons and holiday treats hung in the branches of a special tree. ornaments

The Yule Log is also a key part of the long winter festival. In fact, in earlier times it was part of the tradition to keep it burning the entire twelve days and nights of Yule. Hearths were much bigger then, so communities made a competition out of finding and hauling home the largest one they could. Long-burning oak was the most popular choice, and the new Yule log was supposed to be lit by a kindled remnant of the previous year’s log. Keeping this bit of charred wood under the mistress of the house’s bed brought good luck and also protected the house from fire. yule-log

One constant in all this Yuletide fun was drinking. Wassail bowls, ale, mead, and in later years, punch, all played a part in welcoming the new year. Our ancestors also offered drink to deities, landvaettir, ancestors, disir, alvar, missed friends and loved ones. Snorri Sturluson in his Heimskringla, in the Saga of Hákon the Good, describes the custom of the bragarfull at feasts:

The fire was in the middle of the floor of the temple, and over it hung the kettles, and the full goblets were handed across the fire; and he who made the feast, and was a godi ['chief'], blessed the full goblets, and all the meat of the sacrifice. And first Odin‘s goblet was emptied for victory and power to his king; thereafter,Njörd‘s and Freyja‘s goblets for peace and a good season. Then it was the custom of many to empty the bragafull; and then the guests emptied a goblet to the memory of departed friends, called the minni ['remembrance'].

New Year’s Eve marks the end of Yule, and the Norse brought their way of celebrating it to Scotland, where it’s known as Hogmanay. More drinking is involved, and oath-making (which we call ‘resolutions’), as well as the custom of first-footing. The first person to cross a home’s threshold after midnight on New Year’s Eve will determine the homeowner’s luck for the new year. The ideal visitor bears gifts—preferably whiskey, coal for the fire, small cakes, or a coin—and should be a man with a dark complexion. Why? The answer hearkens back to the 8th century, when the presumably fair-haired Vikings invaded Scotland: a blond visitor was not a good omen.

godyule

If you’d like to learn more about Yule, both as it was celebrated by our ancestors and as modern people recreate those celebrations, check out the links below:

The Traditions of Yule Tide

The Old Norse Yule Celebration – Myth and Ritual

Yule Songs

Yule – The Midwinter Festival

The Wild Hunt – a darker shade of Yule

The Wheel of the Year Turns - Tomte and Julbock

Wassail, drink hail

Visitors from Norfolk

In April of 2012, we wrote a blog post about the Norfolk four course, an 18th century innovation in crop rotation. The principles behind this system have informed many of Seven Trees’ current growing practices, only scaled down to fit our space and time.

We recently received a notice that someone had linked back to this blog post, so naturally we were curious. A few clicks led us to a blog written by someone in training at a working historical farm in…..Norfolk! at the Gressenhall Farm and Workhouse. From their website:

In 1776 the combined parishes of Mitford and Launditch bought Chapel Farm at Gressenhall to build a ‘house of industry’ for the poor.

In 1834 the Poor Law Amendment Act led to the transformation of the house of industry into a workhouse. The aim was to keep costs low by making life for the paupers so unpleasant that people would do everything they could to avoid having to live there.

A new system of classification separated men, women and children. Work included breaking stones, pumping water, carting gravel and oakum picking for men and domestic chores in the kitchens, laundry and female wards for women. The only benefits were the health care and education.

The workhouse closed in 1948. After a short period of time as a home for the elderly, Gressenhall Farm and Workhouse opened as a museum in 1976.

The WorkhouseThe animals on Gressenhall Farm are all East Anglian breeds that would have been common in our farmyards 100 years ago:

• Red Poll cattle

• Norfolk Horn sheep

• Suffolk sheep

• Southdown sheep

• British White cows

• Suffolk Punch horses

• Marsh Daisy chickens

• Norfolk Black turkeys

• Goats

• Large Black pigs

There is a lot to explore on the website alone, so if historical farm geekery is your thing, dig in and click around!

Working Suffolk PunchesI don’t think the humans of Seven Trees have too many ancestors from that area, but we added it to the list of potential stops when we make our big ancestral tour in the next few years.

Aud the Deep-minded

July 9th is a holiday in the Asatru calendar, also known as Haymoon 9; the day of remembrance for Unn (or Aud) the Deep-Minded. Unn was a powerful figure from the Laxdaela Saga who emigrated to Scotland to avoid the hostility of King Harald Finehair. She was the second daughter of Ketil Flatnose, a Norwegian hersir, and Yngvid Ketilsdóttir, daughter of Ketill Wether, a hersir from Ringarike. Aud married Olaf the White (Oleif), son of King Ingjald, who had named himself King of Dublin after going on voyages to Britain and then conquering the shire of Dublin. They had a son named Thorstein the Red. After Oleif was killed in battle in Ireland, Aud and Thorstein journeyed to the Hebrides. Thorstein married there and had many children; he also became a great warrior king, conquering over half of Scotland; however, he was killed in battle after being betrayed by his people. After this happened Aud, who was at Caithness, learned of her son’s death and built a Knarr, a Viking era ship commonly built for Atlantic voyages. Viking ship

She did this secretly in the forest possibly because women were not allowed to be in possession of these ships, or because she did not want anyone to know that she was building one. After its completion, Aud sailed to the Orkneys. There she married off one of her granddaughters, Groa, the daughter of Thorstein the Red. Aud then set off for Iceland. As a settler in Iceland she continued to exhibit all those traits which were her hallmark-strong will, a determination to control, dignity, and a noble character. In the last days of her life, she established a mighty line choosing one of her grandsons as her heir. She died during his wedding celebration, and received a typical Nordic ship burial, surrounded by her treasure and her reputation for great deeds.

Read more about Unn/Aud here – Aud the Deep-Minded

Sigrblot

This April 19th, Seven Trees will be wishing everyone a Happy Harpa!

Our viking ancestors divided the year into two seasons, Náttleysi (“Nightless days”) and Skammdegi (“Short days”). Harpa (possibly a Scandinavian goddess) is the name of the first month of summer, roughly coinciding with mid-April to mid-May.

The holiday celebrated on this day has multiple names – Sumarsdag, Sumardagurinn fyrsti, and Sigrblot. Many summer-kickoff observances were all about fertility, invoking bountiful crops and productive livestock in the up-coming warm season. But Sigrblot (“victory sacrifice”) was intended to bring success and luck to warriors, since summer also heralded the onset of fighting/raiding season.

The Icelandic Club of Greater Seattle details some of the less-warlike traditions of Sumarsdag:

People also used to give summer gifts on the First Day of Summer in Iceland, four centuries before Christmas presents became a tradition, and the summer gift tradition is still practiced in some households. People celebrated with a feast, often more elaborate than on Christmas Eve.

Farmers took a break from their hard work and children were allowed to play with their friends from the neighboring farms. The day was dedicated to young women and to children (it is also known as Children’s Day). On this day young men would often reveal whom they fancied.

Another tradition on the First Day of Summer, called húslestur, involved people getting together and listening to readings from the Icelandic sagas, poems or other literature.

If the weather was warm, farmers would let their cattle and rams out, to allow the animals to greet summer, and to also entertain themselves by watching the animals play.

People used to go to mass on the First Day of Summer until the mid-18th century when the inspectors of the Danish church authority discovered that mass was being held on this heathen day and banned the practice.

According to legend, people considered it a good sign if summer and winter “froze together” (if there was frost on the last night before summer).

People would put a bowl filled with water outside to check whether it had frozen in the early hours of the next morning, before the morning sun could melt it. If the water had frozen, the summer would be a good one.

Curious about what Vikings might have eaten on feast days (or any day)? The Viking Answer Lady has a very informative page on Viking Foods.

The Rosala Viking Centre in Finland hosts authentic blot feasts, as well as many other viking-related activities. If you can’t visit in person, their extensive website, full of evocative pictures, is definitely worth exploring.

Charming of the Plow

Depending on where you’re located, winter is showing its age and spring is on the horizon. This transition has always been marked by local traditions. In modern East Coast America we have Groundhog Day, Christian Europe has Candlemas, Pagan traditions celebrate Imbolc, and descendants of Vikings and Anglo-Saxons welcome the new growing season in yet another way - the charming of the plough (also known as Disting).

A team of transformed oxen driven by the Norse goddess Gefjun.

A team of transformed oxen driven by the Norse goddess Gefjun.

In Sweden at this time, a religious festival was held called the Disablot, to honor the disir – female gods, landspririts, and ancestors. Included in this observance was the governing assembly called the Thing, where laws were made and interpreted, grievances were adjudicated, contracts sealed, and so on. The combined gathering was called Disting, and marked the start of the growing season in that part of the world.

Engraving of a Disablot by J. Malmsrom, a Swedish author.

Engraving of a Disablot by J. Malmsrom, a Swedish author.

A Scandinavian legend describes early ‘land-taking’ customs in the story of the goddess Gefjon. Like many ancient tales, there are conflicting versions from various sources, but the gist is that a Swedish king promised Gefjon as much land as she could plough in a day with four oxen. She transformed her four sons (fathered by an unnamed jotunn) into supernaturally strong oxen, and: Gefjun‘s plough “cut so hard and deep that it uprooted the land, and the oxen drew the land out into the sea to the west and halted in a certain sound.” Gefjun there placed the land, and bestowed upon it the name Zealand. Where the land had been taken from a lake stands.

There has been an association of women and ploughing since time immemorial. Folk traditions in some areas of Russia (where the Vikings settled as Rus) call for women to plough the borders of a community to ward off sickness or calamity. Anglo-Saxons held the Æcerbot or ‘field remedy’ ritual, to heal land that was yielding poorly and return it to full productivity. The ritual called for anointing the plow with herbs and oils, for cakes to be placed in the fresh furrows, and for daylong incantations and songs.

Erce, Erce, Erce, Earthen Mother!
May the Allwielder grant thee, the great Drihten,
acres waxing and covering,
increasing and strengthening.
A sheaf betokens the reaper’s produce
and the broad barley’s produce
and the white wheat’s produce
and the produce of all earth.
Grant to them, great Drihten
whose hallows that in heaven are,
that his farm be fortified against all fiends, each one,
and it be bordered against all
baleful things, each one,
that through the land is seen.
Now I ask the Wielder, that this world shaped,
That there be no such cunning woman; no such crafty man,
That with a word of power changes what is said.

While thumbing through all those seed catalogs, take a moment to think about the earth that grows our food, and how best to care for it. At Seven Trees Farm, we add to the health of our land by adding back manure, lime, composted livestock bedding, etc. We also use as few chemicals and toxins as possible, not just for our own health, but to keep the natural bug-filled ecosystem thriving.

Another way we show respect for our bountiful Earth is by leaving some areas ‘un-plowed’, so that our own landvaettir have an undisturbed place to inhabit. The wild birds also appreciate the thickets and brambles, as do the myriad frogs which will start their spring peeping soon. plough

For more information about ancestral early spring traditions, check out these links -

Charming the Plow: Disting

Holy Tides – Charming of the Plough and Disting

Plough Songs