Aud the Deep-Minded

July 9th is a holiday in the Asatru calendar, also known as Haymoon 9; the day of remembrance for Unn (or Aud) the Deep-Minded. Unn was a powerful figure from the Laxdaela Saga who emigrated to Scotland to avoid the hostility of King Harald Finehair. She was the second daughter of Ketil Flatnose, a Norwegian hersir, and Yngvid Ketilsdóttir, daughter of Ketill Wether, a hersir from Ringarike. Aud married Olaf the White (Oleif), son of King Ingjald, who had named himself King of Dublin after going on voyages to Britain and then conquering the shire of Dublin. They had a son named Thorstein the Red. After Oleif was killed in battle in Ireland, Aud and Thorstein journeyed to the Hebrides.
Thorstein married there and had many children; he also became a great warrior king, conquering over half of Scotland; however, he was killed in battle after being betrayed by his people. After this happened Aud, who was at Caithness, learned of her son’s death and built a Knarr, a Viking era ship commonly built for Atlantic voyages.Viking ship

She did this secretly in the forest possibly because women were not allowed to be in possession of these ships, or because she did not want anyone to know that she was building one. After its completion, Aud sailed to the Orkneys. There she married off one of her granddaughters, Groa, the daughter of Thorstein the Red. Aud then set off for Iceland. As a settler in Iceland she continued to exhibit all those traits which were her hallmark-strong will, a determination to control, dignity, and a noble character. In the last days of her life, she established a mighty line choosing one of her grandsons as her heir. She died during his wedding celebration, and received a typical Nordic ship burial, surrounded by her treasure and her reputation for great deeds.

Read more about Unn/Aud here – Aud the Deep-Minded

Read more about Crass and Creative Norse Nicknames

Summer solstice!

Midnight sun in Swedish forest

One of the humans of Seven Trees is a quarter Swedish, by way of a grandmother named Hilma Siri Perrson. The other human of Seven Trees has Swedish ancestors a bit further up the family tree. And now that the summer solstice approaches, we’re preparing to celebrate the longest day of the year in grand ancestral fashion.

Many of the northern European agricultural groups don’t have a pause for the mid-point of summer. They tend to acknowledge early spring planting (Beltane) and first fruits of harvest (Lammas), but mid-summer bonfires and celebrations come down to us from a pre-farming way of life, when fertility was more about the rising energy of lengthening days than what seeds were in the ground. Scandinavian peoples were the last in northern Europe to fall to Christianity, and the midsommar Maypole festival robustly represents the pre-conquest vitality. The Pacific Northwest has similar climate and topography to Scandinavia, and when we are deep in the midst of June Gloom, the similarities are impossible to ignore. This description of mid-summer rings true to any web-footed, moss-backed PNWer –

Summer in Sweden is short. It starts showing its face in May and explodes into life in June. The summer has to hurry to get things done before the nights turn cold in September and everything stops growing. At Midsummer, the Swedish summer is a lush green and bursting with chlorophyll, and the nights are scarcely dark at all. In the north, the sun never sets.

Also near & dear to the people of Seven Trees are locavore-friendly traditions of eating the year’s first potatoes, pickled herring, chives, sour cream, beer, snaps (homemade vodka) and the first strawberries of the season (we’ve had 2 so far!). Drinking songs are also important at this feast, and many drink heavily. IKEA Germany made a 3 minute commercial celebrating (mocking) the full-on celebration, complete with the traditional dance/song, Sma Grodorna. (Apologies if the video comes up blacked out. It keeps getting taken down on You Tube, and now only this fuzzy full-length version remains)

The great and powerful Wiki says further:

Because Midsummer was thought to be one of the times of the year when magic was strongest, it was considered a good night to perform rituals to look into the future. Traditionally, young people pick bouquets of seven or nine different flowers and put them under their pillow in the hope of dreaming about their future spouse. In the past it was believed that herbs picked at Midsummer were highly potent, and water from springs could bring good health. Greenery placed over houses and barns were supposed to bring good fortune and health to people and livestock; this old tradition of decorating with greens continues, even though most don’t take it seriously. To decorate with greens was called att maja (to may) and may be the origin of the word majstång, maja coming originally from the month May. Other researchers say the term came from German merchants who raised the maypole in June because the Swedish climate made it impossible to find the necessary greens and flowers in May, and continued to call it a maypole. Today, however, it is most commonly called a “midsommarstång” (literally midsummer’s pole). In earlier times, small spires wrapped in greens were erected; this probably predates the maypole tradition, which is believed by many to have come from the continent in the Middle Ages. Others argue that some form of Midsummer pole occurred in Sweden during the pre-Christian times, and was a phallic fertility symbol, meant to impregnate the earth, but as there were no records from those times it cannot be proven, and this idea might just be a modern interpretation of the pole’s form. The earliest historical mention of the maypole in Sweden is from the Middle Ages. Midsummer was, however, linked to an ancient fertility festival which was adapted into St. John’s Day by the church, even though it retained many pagan traditions, as the Swedes were slow to give up the old heathen customs. The connection to fertility is naturally linked to the time of year. Many young people became passionate at Midsummer, and this was accepted, probably because it resulted in more childbirths in March which was a good time for children to be born.

Whichever way your ancestors celebrated this turning point of the year, it’s a good time to stop and mark the longest day, shortest night, and hopefully most fruitful kick-off to summer fertility.

Celebrating winter

This time of year the Seven Trees Farm blog gets a lot of hits from people searching for information about the Krampus, the Wild Hunt, apple tree wassailing, and the Tomte. So to save a little effort, and also to better share our favorite winter solstice traditions, here they are in one list:

We hope you find some fun new ideas amongst all the history for celebrating the return of the sun to share with your loved ones.


Giving thanks for our pagan pilgrim ancestors

Thanksgiving, and its nod to the Mayflower colonists, is a perfect excuse to share this post from the New England Historical Society about a little-known episode in our Puritan past. The humans of Seven Trees Farm have ancestors on both sides of this incident, as do many of our readers no doubt.

There is a Rom/Gypsy proverb that says: “He who wishes to enslave you will never tell you the truth about your ancestors.” Here is some truth about our ancestors….

The Maypole That Infuriated the Puritans

maypole 2

Had it not been for his May Day party with a giant Maypole, Thomas Morton might have established a New England colony more tolerant, easygoing and fun than his dour Puritan neighbors created at Plymouth Plantation.

Morton was a well-educated, well-connected, free-thinking Englishman who came to America in 1624 as a senior partner in a trading venture sponsored by the Crown. He sailed aboard the Unity with Capt. Wollaston and 30 indentured servants. They settled in what is now Quincy, Mass., and began trading with the Indians for furs.

Morton wrote that he found two sorts of people in New England: the Christians and the Infidels. The Infidels he found ‘most full of humanity, and more friendly than the other.’

Morton would battle the Puritans over the next two decades using his wit, his pen, his political connections and his legal expertise. He even managed to get the royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Colony revoked. But his fortunes were tied to the Crown. When the Puritan Roundheads were clashing with Royalists in 1643, America’s first hippie was arrested and thrown in prison.

Pagan Past

Thomas Morton was born in 1576 in Devonshire, England, a part of the country that still bore remnants ot Merrie Old England’s pagan past. He was the son of a soldier, probably a younger son, and he studied law in London at the Inns of Court, the barristers’ professional association.

Morton’s lawyering brought him the connections that brought him to New England. He couldn’t get along with the Puritans at Plymouth Plantation, so he, Wollaston and the indentured servants established their own colony, Mount Wollaston. It grew quickly and grew prosperous.

Morton parted ways with Wollaston in 1626 when he learned Wollaston was selling indentured servants into slavery on Virginia tobacco plantations. Morton encouraged the remaining servants to rebel against Wollaston and set up their own colony. They didn’t need much persuading. The servants organized themselves into a free community called Merrymount with Morton in command. He called himself the ‘host.’ Wollaston fled to Virginia.

Merrymount was a colonial utopia in which the settlers were considered ‘consociates’ and lived in harmony with the Algonquin Indians. The Puritans were horrified that the liberal-minded Morton and his men consorted with native women. They considered Morton an impious, drunken libertine. They also weren’t happy his easygoing colony attracted escapees from the strictness and starvation of Plymouth.


Read the rest of this fascinating tale of how religious extremism shaped our country’s path here – The Maypole That Infuriated the Puritans

Leaders grasp nettles

“Leaders grasp nettles” ~ David Ogilvy, (Scottish born British military intelligence officer and later top advertising executive, 1911-1999)

While leaders sometimes must metaphorically grasp nettles, the humans of Seven Trees Farm look forward to a brief frenzy of literal nettle-grasping this time of year. We’ve written a lot about the medicinal, culinary, recreational and agricultural uses for nettles, but not so much about the magickal and metaphorical meanings our ancestors attributed to this prickly plant.Urtica dioicaIn 1838, Hans Christian Andersen wrote a story about a girl who saved her brothers from their fate of being turned into swans by weaving them shirts made from nettles. She had to gather the nettles with her bare hands, process the fibers with her bare feet, weave the fabric and sew the shirts without speaking.

Unspoken nettles’ seem to be a standard requirement in getting the most efficacy from the plant, whether for magic or medicine. The Folklore Journal of January 1884 recounts this tale: UnspokenNettles also figure in many proverbs:  “If they would drink nettles in March and eat mugwort in May, so many fine maidens wouldn’t go to the clay.”

“Tender-handed, grasp the nettle, and it stings you for your pains. Grasp it like a man of mettle, and it soft as silk remains.”

Old Norse/Germanic belief was that nettles were important to Thor/Thunor, and throwing nettles on the fire during a thunderstorm would protect you from his lightning bolts.

Nettles gathered before sunrise will drive evil spirits away from cattle, according to German folklore, ans a pot of nettle under a sick person’s bed indicated recovery if they stayed green, but death if they wilted.

This old Scottish rhyme needs a little translating, but advises harvesting nettles early in the day, cutting them low to the ground, in shady places, and substituting them for ‘kail’ or greens:

“Gin ye be for lang kail coo the nettle, stoo the nettle

Gin ye be for lang kail coo the nettle early

Coo it laich, coo it sune, coo it in the month o’ June

Stoo it ere it’s in the bloom, coo the nettle early

Coo it by the auld wa’s, coo it where the sun ne’er fa’s

Stoo it when the day daws, coo the nettle early.”

(Old Wives Lore for Gardeners, M & B Boland)

Wikipedia says: Coo, cow, and stoo are all Scottish for cut back or crop (although, curiously, another meaning of “stoo” is to throb or ache), while “laich” means short or low to the ground. Given the repetition of “early,” presumably this is advice to harvest nettles first thing in the morning and to cut them back hard [which seems to contradict the advice of the Royal Horticultural Society].

Nicholas Culpepper, in his classic work Complete Herbal and English Physician says that Mars governs nettles. ” You know Mars is hot and dry, and you know as well that winter is cold and moist; then you may know as well the reason nettle-tops, eaten in the spring, consumeth the phlegmatic superfluities in the body of man, that the coldness and moistness that winter hath left behind.”

Danes believed nettle patches marked the graves of elves, and Scottish Highlanders thought they marked human graves. Archaeologists know that nettles can mean ground that was disturbed by settlements, and where to start digging.

Gravestones among nettles

One last quote to keep in mind when you’re out harvesting your own nettles: “He who is afraid of every nettle should not piss in the grass” ~Thomas Fuller (British Clergyman and Writer, one of the most prolific authors of the 17th century. 1608-1661)

For more herbal folklore, check out these sites:

The Herb Society – Nettles

Nettles – Weeds or Wonders

The Practical Herbalist

Charming of the Plow

The days are getting longer, and everything is poised to burst into spring fever. Our ancestors marked this time in a variety of farmish ways…

Seven Trees Farm

Depending on where you’re located, winter is showing its age and spring is on the horizon. This transition has always been marked by local traditions. In modern East Coast America we have Groundhog Day, Christian Europe has Candlemas, Pagan traditions celebrate Imbolc, and descendants of Vikings and Anglo-Saxons welcome the new growing season in yet another way – the charming of the plough (also known as Disting).

In Sweden at this time, a religious festival was held called the Disablot, to honor the disir – female gods, landspririts, and ancestors. Included in this observance was the governing assembly called the Thing, where laws were made and interpreted, grievances were adjudicated, contracts sealed, and so on. The combined gathering was called Disting, and marked the start of the growing season in that part of the world.

A Scandinavian legend describes early ‘land-taking’ customs in the story of the goddess Gefjon. Like…

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Bean counting

We finally finished shelling all the beans and peas we grew this year, and ended up with a surprisingly colorful harvest. Beans2In 2011 we planted an early-maturing, light red kidney bean from Fedco Seeds. It performed well, even in unpredictable weather, and our trial planting yielded a fair amount. KidneyBeansBut a few of the beans were different, even though all the seed stock looked identical. We saved these mutants for planting in 2012. SpottedKidneyThe 2012 kidney bean harvest continued to surprise us. Seemingly identical mutant beans got a little kaleidoscopic that summer.

Who knew all those colors lurked in such demure pink beans!

Who knew all those colors lurked in such demure pink beans!

So for 2013, we separated the beans into color categories, a bit subjectively, since we hadn’t thought to keep track of which plants produced which color beans – tan, pink, pink spotted, purple spotted and dark. This time we planted them separately and labelled each patch. And again, we were bemused by the variety of colors hiding in the bean genes. Beans1Our camera is about ready to bite the dust, so the colors are way off. But the top beans are the 2011 seed. The next level are from 2012, the spotted mutants and the normal looking pink beans. We only planted the spotted ones in 2012, so the pink ones could have also produced more mutants. Third level are the five color groups we planted in 2013, and at the bottom are what those groups produced. So for 2014 we have to decide which to plant. Should we plant some of each color? Or only plant beans that are the same color as the parent beans from 2013?

I guess that depends on what we’re trying to achieve with this experiment…. With our chicken-breeding efforts, we’re working for productive, well-conformed chickens that lay a certain color-range of eggs. Kidney beans?? Maybe see if we can get the five color groups from 2013 to breed true by selecting the same colored ‘offspring’ for 2014. And at some point we should do a taste test to see if there is anything interesting (or icky) in the flavor. Luckily we have a few months to ponder that before planting time.

We also managed a decent crop of our exceedingly rare Bishop’s Grey peas, originally brought to us by way of Bosnia. It took a little research to discover that they are actually a Swedish soup pea, eaten as a staple starch before potatoes were introduced. After a couple years growing out the few we had, 2013 yielded a nice amount. The only problem is that all the peas came from only two plants. Not enough genetic diversity for a sustainable crop. PeasEnter NordGen! From their ‘about’ page:

Nordgen works to secure genetic diversity for agriculture and forestry in the Nordic countries.

NordGen promotes in a visible, pro-active and effective way, the Nordic co-operation on sustainable conservation and use of genetic resources for agriculture, forestry and food production.

NordGen promotes a balanced interplay between environmental considerations and sustainable use of genetic resources.

NordGen emphasizes the social, cultural and historical values of genetic diversity within and among different species.

NordGen is one of the leading international services and knowledge centers for management of plant, farm animals and forest genetic resources.

NordGen is an important service and knowledge center in the public arena, providing important consultation and support to decision makers.

NordGen works through its member countries for international openness, co-operation and ethically sound use of global resources.

We were able to find two different accessions of this pea, both from Sweden, and both with a donor history going back to the 1900’s. NordGen provides seeds free of charge to growers intending to ‘breed up’ their own seed stock for sale and sharing, and with one of Seven Trees Farm’s humans being of Swedish descent, we thought it a fine idea to work with heritage vegetables from ‘the old country’. But how to get plant material from there to here? A little help from Fredrik Ottosson, seed curator at NordGen, led me to the USDA’s ‘small lots of seed‘ program. I was able to procure a permit, good for three years, which generated some special import labels that I had to mail to NordGen so they could ship the seeds to an inspection station in Seattle. From there they made it to Seven Trees, and we will see if seeds from Sweden take root as naturally as human transplants did back in the pioneer days. PermitGiven that we had jumped through plenty of hoops for the permit, we did some rummaging through other seed accessions at NordGen. Their search feature is a little hard to navigate, but knowing the home county of the Swedish part of Seven Trees, we were able to locate a dry bean variety, not just from the same location that family members came from, but with a cultivar name right out of the family tree. It could very well be that we will be planting seeds that an ancestor developed as a landrace crop.